- Also Known As:
- Chloride Urine Test
- Urinary Chloride Test
- Serum Chloride Test
- Cl Test
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Test Quick Guide
Chloride is an electrolyte, which is a type of mineral that helps regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the body’s acid-base balance. Chloride is one of several important electrolytes, which include potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate.
A chloride test measures the amount of chloride in your blood or urine. Blood and urine chloride tests can help doctors determine if there is a problem with your lungs, kidneys, or other parts of the systems that control the balance of acids and bases in your body.
A chloride sweat test is used to diagnose cystic fibrosis, a health condition that causes digestive and breathing problems. This type of testing is covered on our Sweat Chloride Test page.
About the Test
Purpose of the test
The purpose of a chloride test is to measure the amount of chloride in a sample of body fluid. Testing can determine if there are abnormalities in the body’s acid-base (pH) balance. A chloride test may be ordered for several reasons:
- Diagnosis: Diagnostic testing is used to find the cause of a patient’s symptoms. Chloride testing may be used to diagnose acid-base disorders. Acid-base disorders are not diseases themselves. Instead, they signal the presence of an underlying health condition that is causing the acid-base imbalance in the body.
- Monitoring: Monitoring tests are used to observe the condition of a patient over time. Chloride tests may be used to assess the effectiveness of treatments for acid-base disorders and their underlying cause.
What does the test measure?
Chloride testing measures the level of chloride in the blood or urine.
Chloride is an electrolyte that is present in body fluids. Electrolytes are minerals that hold an electrical charge. Electrolyte levels are closely linked to the balance of fluids in the body and the pH of body fluids. pH is another way of describing the level of a fluid’s acidity or alkalinity, which is also called acid-base balance.
The acid-base balance in the body is carefully controlled by the lungs, kidneys, and chemical processes that make up for small changes in the body’s pH. If the body is unable to compensate for these changes in pH, an acid-base disorder develops.
Measuring levels of electrolytes like chloride can reflect how well the body is maintaining a healthy acid-base balance.
When should I get a chloride test?
A doctor may order chloride testing of the blood or urine if you are experiencing signs or symptoms that may be caused by an acid-base disorder or a condition affecting the body’s balance of fluids.
Mild acid-base disorders may have few signs or symptoms. More severe acid-base disorders can cause a wide variety of symptoms. This is because an appropriate acid-base balance is fundamental to the function of the body’s major systems, including the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and metabolic systems.
Finding a Chloride Test
How to get tested
Chloride testing is performed at a doctor’s office. A blood or urine sample may be collected in the doctor’s office or a medical laboratory. In some cases, you will be sent home with containers for a 24-hour urine collection before returning your sample to the lab.
Can I take the test at home?
There is not an option for at-home chloride testing.
How much does the test cost?
The cost of a chloride test can vary based on many factors, including insurance coverage, whether it is part of a larger test panel, the facility collecting the sample, and the lab performing the analysis.
Testing is usually covered by insurance, but contacting your insurance company may be helpful because your expected costs are closely related to the details of your insurance plan.
Taking a Chloride Test
For chloride tests on blood, a sample is taken from a vein in the hand or arm in a medical setting such as a laboratory or a doctor’s office.
For chloride tests on urine, you may be asked to collect a single urine sample in a bathroom attached to your doctor’s office, or you may be given supplies for at-home collection of all the urine you produce over a 24 hour period.
Before the test
Prior to a chloride test conducted on a sample of blood or urine, you may be asked to temporarily stop taking certain medications that can interfere with the test’s results. Check with your doctor for any specific pre-test instructions.
During the test
Chloride blood tests involve a phlebotomist or nurse collecting a blood sample. To collect the sample, they will use a disinfectant wipe on a patch of skin on your elbow or hand. Then they will tie a strip of stretchy material around your arm above the cleaned area and insert a needle into a vein. There may be a sharp pain as the needle enters, but it passes quickly. The needle is attached to a collection tube, which will fill with blood. While the vial fills, the stretchy armband will be removed.
During a urine test, you will either need to provide a urine sample at the doctor’s office, or you will need to do a 24-hour urine collection. If you provide urine at your doctor’s office, you will be given a small container and directed to the restroom.
A 24-hour urine collection involves saving all of the urine your body produces in a 24-hour period. You will be sent home with one or more collection containers and directions on how to best collect the sample.
After the test
There should not be any side effects or restrictions on activity after getting a chloride test.
If you are having a blood test, the health professional performing the blood draw will cover the spot where the needle was inserted with a band-aid and/or cotton ball.
Chloride Test Results
Receiving test results
Regardless of whether your chloride test is performed on a blood or urine sample, in most cases you should receive your test results within a few business days.
Interpreting test results
When you receive your chloride test results, you will see a description of the concentration of chloride in your blood or urine. Levels of chloride in a test sample are typically measured in millimoles per liter (mmol/L) or milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).
Test reports may also include reference ranges, which describe the expected level of chloride in healthy patients. Reference ranges can vary depending on the laboratory processing your test, so it is best to look closely at your test report and contact your healthcare provider with any questions.
The following sections provide further information related to the interpretation of different types of chloride tests.
Chloride blood test
In general, the reference range for chloride in a blood sample is 98 to 106 mEq/L, or mmol/L.
Having an elevated level of chloride in the blood is called hyperchloremia. Hyperchloremia may be caused by a variety of health issues including:
- Metabolic acidosis, which involves too much acidity in the blood
- Respiratory alkalosis, which is tied to excessive breathing and too much alkalinity in the blood
- Renal tubular acidosis, a condition in which the kidneys aren’t able to remove enough acid from the blood
- Addison disease, a condition in which the adrenal glands produce insufficient levels of certain hormones
- The use of certain medications
Having lower than expected levels of chloride in the blood is called hypochloremia. Hypochloremia may be caused by conditions such as:
- Excess sweating
- Congestive heart failure
- Metabolic alkalosis, which involves too little acidity in the blood
- Respiratory acidosis, in which breathing disruption causes excess acidity in the body
Chloride urine test
For a chloride urine test, there is significant variation in reference ranges based on a person’s intake of chloride. Talk to your doctor to learn more about the reference ranges used to interpret your test.
Elevated levels of chloride in the urine can occur in several situations, including:
- Problems with the adrenal glands
- Kidney inflammation
- Loss of potassium from the body
- Polyuria, which is excessive urine production
- Excess salt in the diet
Lower than expected levels of chloride in the urine may be due to:
- Cushing syndrome, a condition in which the body produces too much of the hormone cortisol
- Inadequate salt intake
- Loss of fluids from diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating
Questions for your doctor about test results
When you get your test results, you should discuss them with your healthcare provider. Helpful question could include:
- What are my chloride test results?
- What do these results mean for my health?
- Do I need any follow-up tests?
- Will I need to repeat this test? If so, when?
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